Vital Mind Monograph
Vital Mind Brain Enhancing Nootropics, Memory, Focus and Mood Support Formula contains essential B-vitamins and nutrients that are specifically focused on improving cognitive function and increasing physical energy: Green Tea, Guarana Seed, Citrus Aurantium, Cola Nut, White Willow Bark, Ginkgo Biloba, Acetyl-L-Carnitine, Bacopin, DMAE, Vinpocetine, and Huperzine-A.
Today’s busy and stressful lifestyle can make you feel overwhelmed, absentminded, and completely exhausted. Don’t go through life in a daze. Vital Mind can boost mental clarity, memory, and stamina with essential B vitamins and quality nutrients that are focused on sustaining physical and mental energy to help you make it through the day.
Research: Neurological Nutrients, Energy Blend, and Vitamin B’s
Related to the essential amino acid L-Carnitine, Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALC) is a mitochondrial metabolite that can increase the availability of oxygen in the brain to improve blood flow and decrease oxidative stress.
By increasing blood circulation and reducing oxidative stress, memory function, alertness and attention span can improve. 1 In combination with Alpha Lipoic Acid, ALC has been shown to protect the brain from oxidative stress in patients with neurological ailments. 2,3
A meta-analysis of ALC clinical trials found a significant difference in cognitive improvement between patients treated with ALC and placebo groups. Trials conducted over 3, 6, or 12 months were reviewed, finding ALC was well-tolerated by patients. Cognitive improvements began in three months and increased overtime. 4
Bacopin, also known as Bacopa monnieri, has been used for centuries in Ayurvedic medicine to aid cognitive function and reduce anxiety. Medical studies have reviewed the effects of Bacopin on memory, mental alertness and learning abilities. One study gave subjects 300 mg of Bacopin for 12 weeks, finding memory and learning processes were significantly improved in the treatment group. 5
Another study gave 125 mg of Bacopin to elderly patients with memory ailments for 12 weeks, followed by a 4 week placebo period. Researchers observed significant improvement in mental alertness, memory and associated learning during the 12 week treatment period. It was concluded that Bacopin effectively improved memory capabilities in the elderly subjects. 6 Similarly, 300 mg/day of Bacopin was administered to elderly patients with cognitive ailments, finding it was safe and effective in improving mental performance.7
Found naturally in fish, Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) is a precursor to acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter carrying messages between brain cells. DMAE has shown positive benefits on balancing mood, as 80 subjects with emotional imbalances took DMAE or a placebo for three months. Individuals taking DMAE had more improvement in emotional well-being. 8
Insufficient oxygen in the brain can lead to a proliferation of oxidative stress and negative cognitive conditions. Ginkgo, a powerful antioxidant, is a valuable source for promoting circulation in the brain to improve memory function, alertness, and overall cognitive health. One study compared multiple doses of ginkgo, with a single daily dose, to see if there were any differences in the effects on short-term memory among healthy middle-aged subjects. The results indicated a single, daily dose of 120 mg of ginkgo was most effective in improving short-term memory. 9
A six-week clinical trial of 262 healthy individuals, from 60 years of age and older, found that ginkgo improved memory scores and self-perception of memory, when compared to the placebo group.10 A similar study of 62 healthy subjects found ginkgo improved mental function in four weeks.11
A critical review of 40 clinical trials, where ginkgo was given in a daily dose of 120 mg to 160 mg for 4 to 6 weeks, indicated positive effects of ginkgo on memory. The review found ginkgo is a safe-treatment for improving overall cognitive function associated with decreased circulation in the brain. 12 Among 202 individuals with cognitive insufficiencies, ginkgo significantly improved cognitive and social functioning, when treated six months to one year. 13
As an extract found in club moss that has been used for centuries in Chinese medicine, Huperzine-A has neuroprotective effects that protect against cognitive deterioration. Different studies have indicated Huperzine-A can support cognitive function, as it reduces the production of acetylcholinesterase (an enzyme that inhibits the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine). A review of Huperzine-A research found significant improvements were observed in learning and memory, by protecting the brain from oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation.14
Another review showed Huperzine-A has been used for centuries to treat swelling and blood disorders, while more current studies have observed significant improvements in cognitive function and quality of life for patients with mental decline. Additionally, the review found Huperzine-A was well-tolerated in animal and human studies.15
Six clinical trials that included a total of 454 patients found that Huperzine-A increased mental function in patients with cognitive decline. Furthermore, behavioral disturbances and functional performances were improved in patients taking Huperzine-A.16
Vinpocetine is derived from the Periwinkle plant found primarily in West Africa. This extract assists several cognitive functions, including memory, concentration, and attention span. Vinpocetine increases oxygen in the brain to deter the development of cerebral ailments.17
Studies have shown that Vinpocetine increases glucose metabolism and stimulates various neuron components in the brain, while its antioxidant activity offers neuroprotection.18 Furthermore, it was observed that Vinpocetine improved glucose utilization and blood flow in patients with cerebral ischemia (reduced blood flow in the brain).19
A twelve-week study recruited patients with mental deterioration to take Vinpocetine, while cerebral blood flow was measured during the treatment. Results indicated an improvement in cerebral blood flow and cognitive functions, especially among patients with mild cognitive impairment.20 Individuals with reduced blood flow in the brain were recruited to take Vinpocetine or a placebo for three months. Results indicated Vinpocetine improved cognitive function, in contrast cognitive abilities declined in the placebo group.21
Forty-two elderly patients with cognitive dysfunction received Vinpocetine or a placebo for 90 days. Results indicated that patients taking Vinpocetine had greater cognitive scores and mental function when measured with the placebo group.22
One study gave Vinpocetine to 30 patients with cerebral ischemia finding the treatment reduced elevated hematocrit levels and red blood cell aggregation that is associated with cerebral ailments.23
Citrus aurantium, or bitter orange, is a citrus tree that contains synephrine, a compound with energizing action. Citrus aurantium can increase stamina and possibly improve mood. 24,25
The Cola (Kola) tree is native to Western Africa, where it is considered an energizing substance that enhances mental alertness and decreases fatigue. 26 Cola nut has polyphenols that provide antioxidant activity to scavenge free radicals and improve vascular circulation. In the food industry, Cola nut extract is a flavoring agent that has been used for centuries among US and international consumers.27 In African medicine, Cola nut is chewed to suppress hunger, thirst, indigestion, and headaches. It is used in Germany to treat fatigue.28
Green Tea is rich in catechin polyphenols, particularly epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which has strong antioxidant and fat oxidizing capabilities. Green Tea has been an effective aid for regulating body temperature and normalizing blood sugar.29 Men and women with excessive abdominal fat were given Green Tea for 12 weeks. The result was a decrease in fat and overall body weight, greater than the control group.30
Glucose tolerance and fat oxidation were measured in moderate-intensity exercise subjects taking Green Tea extract. Results indicated fat oxidation levels (17%) and glucose sensitivity (13%) were higher after taking Green Tea extract, when compared to the placebo.29 Green Tea extract stimulated fat oxidation to improve exercise endurance capacity in mice. Researchers indicated exercise endurance was 30% higher in mice taking Green Tea extract, as metabolic capacity and fat utilization increased to improve skeletal muscle energy. 31,32
As a plant that is native to the Amazon basin, Guarana contains purines, substances that activate the central nervous system, respiratory system, and cardiac muscles. It has been used for centuries in South America, as its natural flavonoid components have been found to help sustain focus and energy levels.33
Guarana extract was given to healthy participants (18-24 years old) to evaluate its effects on cognitive performance and mood. Researchers found that guarana improved attention span, memory and task performance. Furthermore, researchers concluded that caffeine was not the contributing factor in these mental improvements, because the guarana extract contained only minimal amounts of caffeine.34
A multi-vitamin supplement containing guarana or a placebo drink was given to 129 healthy adults (18-24 years old). Researchers found that speed and accuracy improved in performing tasks, while cognitive fatigue decreased with the supplement group.35
White Willow Bark
Rich in polyphenols36, Willow bark is the precursor to salicylic acid that is more commonly known as aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid).10 Researchers suggest that willow bark’s anti-inflammatory actions are comparable to a traditional aspirin treatment; plus, the extract is less harsh on the stomach.37
Vitamin B deficiencies can affect several aspects of cognitive function, including memory, mood, and anxiety, as B vitamins aid the production of chemicals that sustain cognitive performance.38
A nine-year study assessed the cognitive function of 3,718 individuals (65 years and older), in relation to niacin deficiency. Researchers found low niacin intake was related to mental decline, as individuals with low levels were 70% more likely to experience cognitive decline.6
One study reviewed the effects of a vitamin B complex on reducing oxidative stress in the brain. A fourteen-day treatment with B vitamins or a placebo was given to 48 patients with reduced cerebral blood flow caused by tissue inflammation. Researchers found that B vitamins had antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that lowered homocysteine levels in patients with reduced circulation.39
Vitamin B6 (20 mg/day) was given to 38 male subjects (70-79 years old) for three months to assess the effects on mood and mental performance. Researchers indicated vitamin B6 had the greatest effect on memory, especially long-term memory.41
Another three-year study followed 370 healthy subjects (75 years and older) not taking vitamin B12 and folate to evaluate the association between low vitamin B levels and memory impairments. Researchers found vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies were significantly related to cognitive decline among subjects.42
Take 2 capsules as needed with water or your favorite beverage, or as recommended by a Physician. For fast results, take on empty stomach. If you prefer a milder response, take with food.
*Statements made herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
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2) Abdul HM, Butterfield. Involvement of PI3K/PKG/ERK1/2 signaling pathways in cortical neurons to trigger protection by cotreatment of acetyl-L-carnitine and alpha-lipoic acid against HNE-mediated oxidative stress and neurotoxicity: implications for Alzheimer’s disease. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007 Feb 1; 42(3):371-384.
3) Ando S, Tadenuma T, Tanaka Y, et al. Enhancement of learning capacity and cholinergic synaptic function by carnitine in aging rats. J Neurosci Res. 2001 Oct 15; 66(2): 266-271.
4) Montgomery SA, Thal LJ, Amrein,R. Meta-analysis of double blind randomized controlled clinical trials of acetyl-L-carnitine versus placebo in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer’s disease. Int Clin Physcopharmacol. 2003 Mar; 18(2):61-71.
5) Stough C, Lloyd J, Clarke J, Downey L, et al. The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera(Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects. Psychopharmacology. 2001 Apr.
6) Raghav S, Singh H, Dalal PK, Srivastava JS, Asthana OP. Randomized controlled trial of standardized Bacopa monniera extract in age-associated memory impairment. Indian J of Psych. 2006;48(4):238-242
7) Calabrese C, Gregory WL, Leo M, Kraemer D, et al. Effects of a standardized bacopa monnieri extract on cognitive performance, anxiety, and depression in the elderly: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J of Altern & Complement Med. 2008 July; 14(6):707-713.
8) Dimpfel W, Wedekind W, Keplinger I. Efficacy of dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) containing vitamin-mineral drug combination on EEG patterns in the presence of different emotional states. Eur J Med Res. 2003; 8(5): 183-191.
9) Rigney U, Kimber S, Hindmarch I. The effects of acute doses of standardized ginkgo biloba extract on memory and psychomotor performance in volunteers. Phytother Res. 1999 Aug; 13(5):408-415.
10) Mix JA, Crew WD. A double-blind, placebo controlled randomized trial of Ginkgo Biloba extract EGb761 in a sample of cognitively intact older adults: neuropsycological findings. Human Psychopharmacology Clin Exp. 2002; 17:267-277.
11) Cieza A, Maier P, Poppel E. Effects of Ginkgo biloba on mental functioning in healthy volunteers. Arch Med Res. 2003; 34(5): 373-381.
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13) Lebars PL, et al. Ginkgo biloba for dementia. Journal of the American Medical Association 1997; 278: 1327-1332.
14) Zhang HY, Zheng CY, Yan H, Wang ZF, et al. Potential therapeutic targets of huperzine A for Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. Chem Biol Interact. 2008 Sep 25;175(1-3):396-402.
15) Zangara A. The psychopharmacology of huperzine-A: an alkaloid with cognitive enhancing and neuroprotective properties of interest in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003 Jun;75(3):675-686.
16) Li J, Wu HM, Zhou RL, Liu GJ, Dong BR. Huperzine A for Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Apr 16;(2):CD005592.
17) Vas A, Guylas B, Szabo Z, Bonoczk P, et al. Clinical and non-clinical investigations using positron emission tomography, near infrared spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler methods on the neuroprotective drug Vinpocetine: a summary of evidences. J Neurol Sci. 2002; 203-204: 259-262.
18) Hadjiev D. Asymptomatic ischemic cerebrovascular disorders and neuroprotection with Vinpocetine. Ideggyogy Sz. 2003; 56(5-6): 166-172.
19) Bonoczk P, Gulyas B, Adam-Vizi V, Nemes A, et al. Role of sodium channel inhibition in neuroprotection: effect of Vinpocetine. Brain Res Bull. 2000; 53(3): 245-254.
20) Valikovics A. Investigation of the effect of Vinpocetine on cerebral blood flow and cognitive functions. Ideggyogy Sz. 2007; 60(7-8): 301-310.
21) Kemeny V, Molnar S, Andrejkovics M, Makai A, Csiba L. Acute and chronic effects of Vinpocetine on cerebral hemodynamics and neuropsychological performance in multi-infarct patients. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005; 45(9): 1048-1054.
22) Balestreri R, Fontana L, Astengo F. A double-blind placebo controlled evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Vinpocetine in the treatment of patients with chronic vascular senile cerebral dysfunction.
23) Szapary L, Horvath B, Alexy T, Marton Z, et al. Effect of vinpocetin on the hemorheologic parameters in patients with chronic cerebrovascular disease. Orv Hetil. 2003; 144(20): 973-978.
24) Klontz KC, Timbo BB, Street D. Consumption of Dietary Supplements Containing Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange)-2004 California Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS). Ann Pharmacother. 2006 Oct;40(10):1747-1751.
25) Kim KW, Kim HD, Jung JS, et al. Characterization of antidepressant-like effects of p-synephrine stereoisomers. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol . 2001;364:21–26.
26) Ebsco CAM Review Board. Cola Nut. Ebsco Publishing. 2009 Apr. Retrieved on July 28, 2009 from http://healthlibrary.epnet.com/print.aspx?token=af362d97-4f80-4453-a175-02cc6220a387&chunkiid=21686
27) Burdock GA, Carabin IG, Crincoli CM. Safety assessment of kola nut extract as a food ingredient. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009 Aug. 47(8):1725-1732.
28) Blumenthal M, ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs, Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Boston, Mass: Integrative Medicine Communications; 1998:113–114.
29) Venables, MC, Hulston, CJ, Cox, HR, Jeukendrup, AE. Green Tea extract ingestion, fat oxidation, and glucose tolerance in healthy humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Mar; 87(3):778-784.
30) Nagao, T, Hase, T, Tokimitsu, I. A Green Tea extract high in catechins reduces body fat and cardiovascular risks in humans. Obesity. 2007 Jun; 15(6):1473-1483.
31) Murase, T, Haramizu, S, et al. Green Tea extract improves endurance capacity and increases muscle lipid oxidation in mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005 Mar; 288(3):R708:715.
32) Murase, T, Haramizu, S, et al. Green Tea extract improves running endurance in mice by stimulating lipid utilization during exercise. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006 Jun; 290(6):R1550-1556.
33) Scholey A, Haskell C. Neurocognitive effects of guarana plant extract. Drugs Fut. 2008; 33(10): 869.
34) Kennedy DO, Haskell CF, Wesnes KA, Scholey AB. Improved cognitive performance in human volunteers following administration of guarana (Paullinia cupana) extract: comparison and interaction with Panax ginseng. Pharma Biochem & Behavior. 2004 Nov; 79(3):401-411.
35) Kennedy DO, Haskell CF, Robertson B, Reay J et al. Improved cognitive performance and mental fatigue following a multi-vitamin and mineral supplement with added guarana (Paullinia cupana). Appetite. 2008 Mar-May; 50(2-3):506-513.
36) Khayyal, MT, El-Ghazaly, MA, et al. Mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of a standardized willow bark extract. Arzneimittelforschung. 2005; 55(11): 677-687.
37) Marz, RW, Kemper, F. Willow bark extract–effects and effectiveness. Status of current knowledge regarding pharmacology, toxicology and clinical aspects. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2002; 152(15-16): 354-359.
38) Morris, MC, Evans, DA, Bienias, JL, et al. Dietary niacin and the risk of incident Alzheimer’s disease and of cognitive decline. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004 Aug; 75(8):1093-1099.
39) Ullegaddi, R, Powers, HJ, Bariballa, SE. B-group vitamin supplementation mitigates oxidative damage after acute ischaemic stroke. Clin Sci. 2004 Nov; 107(5): 477-484.
40) Frick, B, Gruber, B, et al. Homocysteine but not neopterin declines in demented patients on B vitamins. J Neural Transm. 2006 Nov; 113(11): 1815-1819.
41) Deijen, JB, van der Beek, EJ, et al. Vitamin B-6 supplementation in elderly men: effects on mood, memory, performance and mental effort. Psychopharmacology. 1992; 109(4): 489-496.
42) Wang, HX, Wahlin, A, et al. Vitamin B12 and folate in relation to the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology. 2001 May; 56(9): 1188-1194.