PowerZyme Prime – Broad-Spectrum, High-Potency Digestive Enzyme Formula
PowerZyme Prime is a high-potency, comprehensive enzyme formulation that provides a wide range of microbial-derived digestive enzymes to support and enhance the body’s digestive capabilities. PowerZyme capsules contain a broad spectrum of enzymes that facilitate more complete breakdown of proteins, polypeptides, starches, vegetable fiber, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and lipids (fats). These advanced digestive enzyme formulations provide a wide array of enzymes active across a broad pH range (2 to 12) including amylases (amylase, alpha-amylase and glucoamylase), disaccharidases (lactase, sucrase/invertase and maltase), acid, alkaline and neutral proteases, protease/peptidase complex with endopeptidase, exopeptidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV activities, Serratia peptidase, pullulanase, cellulase, phytase, and lipase.
PowerZyme includes the antimicrobial enzyme lysozyme, normally found in human saliva, tears, and breast milk. It is provided in a highly purified form derived from hen egg whites. The specific combination and potencies of enzymes in PowerZyme are intended to enable more complete breakdown of casein, gluten, lipids, disaccharides, and carbohydrates compared to generally available digestive enzyme supplements.
PowerZyme supplies purified enzymes in a base of cellulose encapsulated in two-piece Kosher-certified vegetarian capsules. A small amount of L-leucine, a naturally occurring amino acid, is used as an encapsulation aid for PowerZyme .
No porcine, bovine or other animal-derived digestive enzymes are used. Fruit-derived enzymes, such as bromelain or papain, are avoided to maximize tolerance by phenol sensitive individuals.
PowerZyme is free of the following common allergens: milk/casein, fish, shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, wheat/gluten, yeast, and soybeans. Contains no artificial colors, flavors, or preservatives.
DIGESTIVE ENZYME FUNCTIONS
Enzymes are present throughout the human body and in all independently living organisms. They make life possible by catalyzing (speeding up) chemical reactions allowing these processes to occur in the biochemical environment found in living organisms. Enzymes are proteins often containing one or more metal cations at their active site or sites. Enzymes are essential for energy production, synthesis of biological molecules, gene repair and replication, maintenance of cellular and tissue structural integrity, and normal physiological function. Digestive enzymes break down food macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates and fats, into smaller molecules for absorption by the intestines. These enzymes are secreted by salivary glands (alpha-amylase and lingual lipase), the stomach (pepsinogen, gelatinase and gastric lipase), the pancreas (alpha-amylase, lipase, trypsinogen and chymotrysinogen), and the small bowel (disaccharidases, intestinal lipase and erepsin protease). Digestive enzymes are also present in raw foods such as fresh fruits and vegetables. Enzymes in raw foods are thought to work synergistically with the body’s endogenous digestive enzymes to more completely digest food carbohydrates and other macronutrients. This action is lost, however, when foods are cooked or heat processed destroying the natural catalytic activity of food digestive enzymes. Consuming cooked or heat processed foods places the full burden of digestion on the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract.
A variety of health conditions can adversely affect the body’s ability to produce its own digestive enzymes resulting in production of poorly functional enzymes or diminished secretion of enzymes by the salivary
glands, stomach or pancreas or reduced enzyme activity in the intestinal brush border. Insufficient enzyme activities may be associated with abdominal pain, bloating, gas, indigestion, malabsorption, and diarrhea. Undigested or partially digested food in the gut may putrefy and produce toxins that can leak into the bloodstream causing fatigue, headache, and behavioral symptoms. Irritation and inflammation of the intestinal mucosa may occur, leading to an abnormal increase in intestinal permeability or “leaky gut.” Undigested protein molecules may cross the intestinal lining triggering immunological reactions such as allergies, asthma, and skin rashes. Incomplete polypeptide digestion, increased intestinal permeability, and disaccharide malabsorption may contribute to the behavioral problems of non-verbal autistic patients. Reduced concentrations of disaccharidase enzymes are observed in many children and adults with chronic diarrhea. Children with dyspepsia typically exhibit low activity of duodenal maltase-glucoamylase and/or disaccharidases. Supplementing the diet with microbial-derived digestive enzymes can assist the complete digestion of food components, promote normal nutrient absorption, and reduce the number of large, potentially inflammatory molecules that leak through the intestinal mucosa lining.
PowerZyme Prime is an uncommonly comprehensive and potent combinations of enzymes offering maximum support of intestinal digestive functions. Taken regularly with meals, PowerZyme can ensure more complete digestion of foods and improved bioavailability of dietary macro- and micronutrients.
CARBOHYDRATE SPECIFIC ENZYMES
The gastrointestinal tract only absorbs sugars in their simple monosaccharide forms as glucose, fructose, and galactose. To accomplish normal carbohydrate absorption, these macronutrients must be fully broken
down into simple monosaccharide sugars. This task is performed by carbohydrate specific enzymes, also known as carbohydrases, that include enzymes that break down dietary carbohydrates such as starches,
fibers, and oligosaccharides. Insufficient carbohydrate digestion can be associated with diarrhea and the undigested carbohydrates can be fermented by potentially pathogenic microorganisms in the ileum and colon leading to increased gas production, bloating, and abdominal discomfort. A full spectrum of carbohydrate specific enzymes is included in PowerZyme to ensure complete breakdown of complex and more simple carbohydrates.
Amylase refers to a group of related enzymes widely distributed throughout nature. These are found in animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, and archaea. Different amylase enzymes are designated with Greek letters as alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, and gamma-amylase. Alpha-amylase is the primary carbohydrase in animals while beta-amylase and gamma-amylase are found in plants, fungi, bacteria, and archaea. For example, beta-amylase is responsible for the sweetness of ripening fruit as it breaks starch down into sugar.
Despite the different names, all amylase enzymes are glycoside hydrolases that cleave ??-(1g4) glycosidic bonds. Amylases hydrolyze amylose and amylopectin found in starchy vegetables such as potatoes, corn, rice and wheat, as well as glycogen and other related carbohydrates. Amylopectin is less digestible by human alpha-amylase than is amylose. The resistance of amylopectin to digestion increases as chain length extends. Incompletely digested amylopectin may remain trapped in the microvilli brush-border lining of the small intestine where it may be fermented by potentially pathogenic bacteria and yeast contributing to dysbiosis, inflammation, and abnormally increased intestinal permeability. The amylase supplied by PowerZyme enhances the ability of the body to break down amylopectin.
Alpha-Amylase is found in saliva and pancreatic secretions. It is a calcium-requiring metalloenzyme that acts at random on ??-(1g4) glycosidic bonds within the carbohydrate chain. Alpha-amylase breaks amylose into maltose (a glucose disaccharide) and maltotriose (a glucose trisaccharide) and amylopectin into glucose, maltose, and alpha-limit dextrins which consist of branched glucose polymers of variable chain length.
Glucoamylase, also known as glucan 1,4-??-glucosidase, is an exoamylase normally found in the intestinal brush border membrane that releases -D-glucose from the non-reducing ends of starch and other longer polysaccharides. In addition to its ability to cleave ??-(1g4) glycosidic bonds, glucoamylase also efficiently hydrolyzes the ??-(1g6) glycosidic bonds at the branch points of amylopectin and isomaltose making it an excellent enzyme for the digestion of these carbohydrates. Glucoamylase functions in concert with other brush border enzymes such as sucrase and maltase to liberate -D-glucose for absorption by enterocytes.
DISACCHARIDE SPECIFIC ENZYMES
Disaccharidases are enzymes that primarily hydrolyze disaccharides into their component monosaccharides (single sugars). Disaccharidases are normally found in the small intestinal brush border and are critical for the final steps of carbohydrate digestion. Enterocytes only absorb monsaccharides either by active transport as occurs with glucose or by passive diffusion as with fructose. Insufficient disaccharidase levels or activities can be associated with disaccharide malabsorption with attendant abdominal discomfort, gas, and diarrhea. Lactose (milk sugar) intolerance, the most common and best known disaccharide intolerance, is due to deficiency of the disaccharidase lactase. Incomplete digestion of disaccharide sugars sets the stage for their fermentation by potentially pathogenic organisms in the intestinal tract and may contribute to intestinal dysbiosis.
Lactase, a member of the beta-galactosidase enzyme family, hydrolyzes the -(1g4) glycosidic bond in lactose yielding its component -D-galactose and -D-glucose monosaccharides. Lactose comprises 2-8% of the solids in milk. Infants have the highest activities of lactase which is normally present in the greatest concentrations in the brush border of the mid-jejunum. Lactase activity declines to low levels in mid-childhood and becomes absent in many individuals. People without adequate lactase activities experience incomplete lactose digestion which may result in excessive gas production, bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal cramping.
Maltase, also known as alpha-glucosidase, is an enzyme that specifically digests maltose into its two constituent ??-D-glucose molecules. Maltose is a disaccharide sugar found in malt, cereal grains, and many processed foods. Maltase is not just a disaccharidase, but possesses much broader carbohydrase activities. Maltase cleaves the ??-(1g4) glycosidic bonds in amylose and amylopectin working from the non-reducing ends of the molecules. It can also digest glycogen and can hydrolyze ??-(1g2), ??-(1g3), and ??-(1g6) glycosidic bonds. Maltase’s ability to cleave ??-(1g6) glycosidic bonds allows it to breakdown isomaltose. Maltase has a preference for short oligosaccharide chains. Maltase is ubiquitous in living creatures and in humans is normally secreted by enterocytes lining the small intestine.
Sucrase (invertase) has the distinctive ability to hydrolyze the ??-(1g2) glycosidic bond in sucrose disaccharides yielding ??-D-glucose and -D-fructose. Sucrose, often called refined table sugar, is an important disaccharide made by plants but not animals. Sucrose is a distinct disaccharide in that the ??-(1g2) linkage joins the reducing ends of ??-D-glucose and -D-fructose. This makes sucrose unreactive and an excellent preservative. In people, sucrase is complexed with the enzyme isomaltase in the brush-border microvilli lining the small intestine. Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency, a rare inherited metabolic disorder characterized by the absence or inactivity of the sucrase-isomaltase complex, results in osmotic diarrhea when sucrose is ingested because it cannot be hydrolyzed. Sucrase derived from plant or microbial sources, often used to treat congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency, has no isomaltase activity.
Pullulanase is a unique microbial-derived “debranching” enzyme that specifically cleaves the ??-(1g6) glycosidic bonds in pullulan, a polysaccharide composed of maltotirose units joined by ??-(1g6) links. Pullulanase easily hydrolyzes the ??-(1g6) glycosidic bonds found in ??-limit dextrins, branched oligosaccharides derived from amylopectin breakdown. Pullulanase is sometimes referred to as limit dextrinase because of its ability to digest ??-limit dextrins. Pullulanase together with glucoamylase supply the isomaltase activity lacking in plant- and microbial-derived sucrases facilitating the complete breakdown of highly branched amylopectin starch molecules.
PLANT FIBER SPECIFIC ENZYMES
Fiber digesting enzymes help the body by breaking down dietary fiber that may be problematic for some individuals. Undigested fiber may contribute to dysbiosis, interfere with optimal nutrient absorption, and impair bowel regularity.
Cellulase denotes a family of enzymes primarily produced by bacteria, fungi, and protozoans that hydrolyze cellulose, a polysaccharide of -(1g4) linked glucose molecules that constitutes the principal structural molecule of plants and is the most abundant component of plant biomass. Generally, only cellulases from bacteria and fungi, produced as a cellulase enzyme complex, are able to completely digest cellulose into its constituent -Dglucose molecules. The cellulase enzyme complex is composed of three types of cellulase: an endocellulase, an exocellulase, and a beta-glucosidase also known as cellobiase. The endocellulase disrupts crystalline cellulose and hydrolyzes random -(1g4) glycosidic bonds within a cellulose polysaccharide chain producing glucose oligosaccharides of varying length. The exocellulase cleaves -(1g4) glucose disaccharides, trisaccharides, and tetrasaccharides from both the reducing and nonreducing ends of cellulose. The beta-glucosidase cleaves the di-, tri-, and tetrasaccharide products of exocellulase into -D-glucose monomers. Cellulase supplementation allows for greater digestion of plant material and promotes greater nutrient absorption.
Hemicellulase/Pectinase Complex is a mix of enzymes that digest plant fiber. Hemicellulase, a set of accessory cellulase enzymes, breaks down hemicellulose, a heterogeneous group of structural matrix polysaccharides. In contrast to highly homogeneous -D-glucose polymers of cellulose, hemicellulose is composed of a variety of sugar monomers, sugar acids, and acetyl esters. In addition to -D-glucose, hemicellulose can include xylose, mannose, galactose, rhamnose, and arabinose. The pentoses in hemicellulose are usually D-sugar isomers, but it may contain some L-sugars. Xylose is the predominant sugar. Hemicellulose is a shorter chain polysaccharide with a -(1g4) backbone and numerous covalently bound branching side chains. Hemicellulase enzymes hydrolyze the polysaccharide backbone and debranch the polymer. Pectinase denotes a family of enzymes that break down pectin. Pectin, large polysaccharide plant cell wall components mostly composed of hundreds of ??-(1g4) linked D-galacturonic acid monomers, is the gel matrix that holds plant cells together and embeds other cell wall constituents such as cellulose. Pectinase enzymes include polygalacturonases, pectin methyl esterases, and pectin lyases. Many fruits produce pectinases as they ripen softening their cell walls. Hemicellulose/pectinase complex facilitates the more complete digestion of ingested fruits, vegetables, and legumes.
Phytase refers to a group of phosphohydrolyses that breakdown phytic acid, a nonnutrient component of plants that binds and stores phosphorus. Phytic acid is an anti-nutrient. It complexes with minerals such as calcium, iron, manganese, and zinc making them unavailable for absorption. The phosphoric acid group of phytic acid can bond with proteins, amino acids, starch, and lipids making them less soluble decreasing their availability for digestion. Phytic acid may also interact with digestive enzymes rendering them less effective. Phytic acid is found in a broad array of grains and vegetables. Nonruminant animals, including people, have little or no phytase in their intestinal tracts. The addition of phytase to the diet increases the bioavailability of phosphorus, calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and mineral trace elements as well as proteins and other macronutrients. Phytase can also improve the efficiency of a person’s own digestive enzymes in the setting of a diet high in foods with phytic acid such as soybeans, corn (maize), and bran.
Beta-Glucanase is an endoglycosidase that hydrolyzes the -(1g3) glycosidic bonds in beta-glucan. Betaglucans are polysaccharides consisting of a -(1g3) linked backbone of D-glucose monomers with -(1g6) or -(1g4) branches. Beta-glucans are important components of bacterial, fungal, and plant cell walls. They are present in high amounts in yeasts and cereals such as barley, rye, and rice. Beta-glucanase digests beta-glucans into cellobiose and cello-oligosaccharides which in turn can be further hydrolyzed by cellulase. Beta-glucanase promotes complete digestion of cereals and grains as well as lysis of yeast cell walls. Alpha-Galactosidase hydrolyzes the terminal, non-reducing ??-D-galactose residues in ??-D-galactosides, including galactose oligosaccharides, galactomannans, and galactohydrolase. In humans, alpha-galactosidase is normally found within lysosomes, but not expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. ??-D-Galactosides including raffinose and stachyose are ubiquitously found in vegetables such as broccoli and asparagus, beans, and whole grains. People cannot digest these dietary ??-D-galactosides which pass into the distal intestine where they are fermented by the intestinal microflora generating carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and methane which may result in abdominal bloating, discomfort, and gas (flatulence).
Galactomannase, also known as gammanase hydrolases, break down galactomannans. Galactomannans are polysaccharides consisting of a -(1g4) linked D-mannose backbone (mannopyranose) with -(1g6) D-galactose branches. Galactomannans are commonly found in fenugreek, guar, tara, and carob gums and are widely used in the food industry as stabilizers and to increase viscosity. Humans have no digestive enzymes to break down galactomannans which pass undigested into the distal intestines for microbial fermentation often leading to gas and bloating. Galactomannase hydrolyzes the galactomannosidic and mannosidic links breaking them into monosaccharides and galactoopyranose and mannopyranose disaccharide fragments.
PROTEIN AND PEPTIDE-SPECIFIC ENZYMES
Proteases are enzymes that hydrolyze proteins into smaller fragments known as polypeptides. Peptidases are enzymes that break polypeptides down into their constituent amino acids. Dietary protein digestion normally begins in the stomach where pepsin, an acid-stable protease, initiates the cleavage of peptide bonds within proteins to produce large polypeptide molecules. Complete digestion of these polypeptides should occur in the duodenum and jejunum where pancreatic and intestinal proteases and peptidases cleave peptide bonds until only small peptide units and individual amino acids remain. Inadequate digestion of proteins and peptides can lead to their putrefaction in the intestinal lumen. Absorption of the undigested proteins and polypeptides may trigger food hypersensitivities. Incomplete digestion of gluten and casein may result in the production of exorphin (exogenous opiate-like) polypeptides that have the capacity to cause or potentiate adverse neurological symptoms. PowerZyme contains a full complement of protease and peptidase enzymes in amounts appropriate to support the breakdown of a wide spectrum of dietary proteins while avoiding excessive amounts of proteases found in some formulations that may irritate mucosal membranes.
Acid protease is a group of microbial-derived enzymes that have their optimal proteolytic activity at an acidic pH. Acid protease hydrolyzes a broad array of peptide bonds and exhibits both endo- and exoprotease activities meaning it breaks peptide bonds within and from the ends of a protein chain and giving rise to amino acids and small polypeptides.
Alkaline protease is a group of microbial-derived enzymes that have their optimal proteolytic activity at an alkaline pH. Aklaline protease also breaks down a variety of peptide bonds both within and from the ends of a protein chain. The combination of alkaline and acid proteases facilitates protein digestion across a broad pH range from the stomach to the jejunum.
Protease/Peptidase Complex with DPP-IV activity has endo- and exopeptidase functions as well as dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) hydrolytic action. DPP-IV is a unique mammalian membrane-bound serinetype exopeptidase. DPP-IV has the rare ability to hydrolyze prolyl bonds in proteins carrying the amino acid proline in the next to last position from the amino (N) terminus releasing dipeptides. DPP-IV enzymes are widely distributed throughout the body where they serve to regulate neuropeptides, immunopeptides, and peptide hormones, which often have multiple prolines making them resistant to other proteases. DPP-IV is normally found in the small intestines and colon where it plays a vital role in the hydrolysis of prolyl peptides and the absorption of proline-rich proteins. DPP-IV is critical to the catabolic inactivation of exorphins, bioactive peptides derived from food proteins with morphine-like opioid effects. Exorphins derive primarily from the milk protein casein, gluten, and soy. The DDP-IV activity present in the protease/peptidase provides for complete digestion of proline-rich proteins and efficient breakdown of dietary exorphins.
Lipase is a short name for triacylglycerol lipase. Lipase converts dietary triglycerides (fats or lipids) into diglycerides, monoglycerides, fatty acids, and glycerol. The body produces several types of lipases. Lingual and gastric lipases are secreted in the saliva and stomach and act primarily in the stomach. Lingual lipase differs from other human triacylglycerol lipases in that it completely breaks down triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids while the other lipases work at the carbon 1 and 3 positions of glycerol. Pancreatic lipase is secreted in pancreatic fluid and exerts its activity in the duodenum. Intestinal lipase is found in the mucosal brush border. Pancreatic lipase is the most active of the lipases generating approximately 85% of the free fatty acids produced during fat digestion. Absorption of fatty acids is important for health and incomplete digestion leads to malabsorption, diarrhea with fat in the stools (steatorrhea), and deficiency of essential fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins such as A, D, E, and K. The lipase in PowerZyme promotes healthy fat digestion and absorption of essential lipids and fat soluble nutrients.
Serratia peptidase also known as serralysin, serrapeptase or serratiopeptidase, is a zinc metalloprotease derived from non-pathogenic strains of enterobacteria genus Serratia. Serratia peptidase exhibits welldocumented fibrinolytic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-edematous activities and lessens the viscosity of exudates. It inhibits the release of pain-associated peptides such as bradykinin. In clinical studies, Serratia peptidase has been shown to favorably modulate inflammation, pain, and the immune response to infection. It helps protect the intestinal mucosa from irritation and inflammation. Serratia peptidase has a greater ability to break down the milk protein casein than any other known neutral or alkaline protease. The Serratia peptidase in PowerZyme is enterically coated to prevent its inactivation by stomach acid.
Lysozyme is an anti-microbial enzyme found in tears, saliva, mucus, and breast milk. Lysozyme breaks down peptidoglycans found in bacterial cell walls especially those of Gram-positive bacteria. It hydrolyzes the -(1g4) glycosidic bond linking N-acetyl muramic acid with N-acetylglucosamine. Lysozyme can also act as a non-specific innate opsonin binding to bacterial cell walls to facilitate phagocytosis of the bacteria. Lysozyme has been documented in human studies to inhibit the growth of Candida albicans. Lysozyme has been shown in clinical studies to help inhibit and disrupt oral biofilms and protect against pathogens. Lysozyme is derived from hen egg whites; highly purified, and free of egg antigens making it a well tolerated ingredient that complements the benefits of the other enzymes in PowerZyme to support intestinal health.
PowerZyme Prime is recommended for support of healthy intestinal function in a wide range of people from those who wish to maximize digestion and nutrient absorption to individuals with digestive enzyme insufficiency or deficiency, intestinal dyspermeability, gut inflammation, dysbiosis, malabsorption or maldigestion. These formulations can be used to improve the breakdown, absorption, and utilization of nutrients from a wide spectrum of foods. They are especially appropriate for individuals requiring enhanced breakdown of casein, gluten, soybeans, lipids/fats, high-fiber foods, and lactose and other disaccharides.
As a dietary supplement take two (2) capsules at the beginning of each meal or as directed by a healthcare practitioner. Dosing is based on the amount of food ingested (content and size) of a meal and not specifically by body weight or age. Capsules may be opened and the contents mixed in a small amount of food or beverage. Contents should not be mixed with hot food or beverage as this may reduce enzyme activity.
Proteolytic enzymes may exacerbate pre-existing damage to the esophageal, gastric or duodenal mucosa. Persons with gastritis, active peptic ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux disorder or known damage to the gastrointestinal mucosa should only use this product under the care of a healthcare practitioner. This product may not be appropriate for those with known allergies to Aspergillus enzyme proteins, though non-specific mold allergies do not necessarily preclude use of fungal-based enzymes. Lysozyme is derived from egg white protein and is highly purified, however, this product may not be appropriate for those with classic allergic reactions (IgE mediated) to egg white.
Diabetics should use these products under the supervision of a healthcare professional as carbohydrases may increase the intestinal production and absorption of glucose. Pregnant or nursing women should consult with a healthcare provider before using these products.
Carbohydrases may increase intestinal glucose absorption and may thus interfere with the efficacy of oral hypoglycemic drugs or insulin.
PowerZyme Prime is supplied as 120 vegetarian capsules per bottle with full-bottle shrinkwrap.
Packaged 12 bottles per case.
Store in a cool, dry place (59°F-85°F) away from direct light. Keep out of reach of children.
(Typically enough for one month, depending on personal eating habits.)
This product contains active enzymes. Please read No FryDay Shipping Policy, below:
Applied Health’s products ship out of Scottsdale, Arizona, where we have two seasons; Summer, and a few days in January.
Our unofficial city slogan is, “Welcome to Scottsdale… You are now 30 miles from water… and, 2 feet from Hell.“
The success of some of our products are due to a highly refined enzyme technology, custom tailored for each specific product. Enzymes are proteins, each type with a specific shape and purpose. In general, they are fairly stable, but excessive heat can alter the shape, effectively, changing the ability to function correctly.
For this reason, during the hot times of the year, we choose not to ship enzyme-containing products from our facilities on Fridays. This is just an additional step we take to ensure the quality of the product is maintained between the time it leaves here and arrives at your door.
Please understand the occasional Summertime delays, for we put too much effort into providing you the highest-performing product in its respective category to allow a product to languish among inferior parcels in the back of a Postal truck, on the South side of Phoenix, over a blistering hot weekend.
Applied Health Solutions, Inc.
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